The main cause is tooth decay, which approaches or reaches the cavity where the nerve is housed, potentially causing either irreversible pulpitis or necrosis of the tooth.
Tooth necrosis occurs when bacteria infect the pulp tissue. In these cases, the pain is usually sharp and intermittent, increasing with chewing, and is usually relieved by cold. In some cases, the bacteria manage to infect the surrounding tissues producing phlegmon, with swelling of the face.
Treatment has two main phases.
In the first place, the location, instrumentation and deep cleaning of the ducts. In cases of necrosis, on some occasions, we leave an intracanal medication for at least two weeks, to eliminate a greater amount of bacteria, thus improving the prognosis.
Second, and once the ducts are clean and shaped, we proceed to the obturation, which consists of introducing a material into the ducts to leave them properly sealed.
The prognosis of endodontics is around 90% success in cases of irreversible pulpitis, and over 80% in cases of necrosis.